The pharmacological importance of agmatine in the brain
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Agmatine is a polyamine that is produced via decarboxylation of l-arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase. It binds to various receptors and has been accepted as a novel neurotransmitter in brain. In experimental studies, agmatine exhibited anticonvulsant, antinociceptive, anxiolytic and antidepressantlike actions. Furthermore, it has some beneficial effects on cerebral ischemia models in animals. Agmatine interacts with the mechanisms of withdrawal syndromes for several addictive agents. It also modulates some processes involved in learning and memory. Thus, agmatine seems to be a valuable agent for the treatment of behavioral and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the aberrant release and transmission of agmatine in the central nervous system (CNS) may be associated with mechanisms of several CNS disorders, such as psychosis. Interactions between agmatine and other central neurotransmitter systems, such as the glutamatergic and nitrergic systems, are also very important. In light of the current literature on agmatine, we can anticipate that the central agmatinergic system may be an important target in development of novel strategies and approaches for understanding the etiopathogenesis of some important central disorders and their pharmacological treatments. The main objective of this review is to investigate and update the information on effects of agmatine in CNS and highlight its pharmacological importance in central disorders.